【英专考研】语言学教程复习笔记(胡本)
英语 考研
考研 / 英语
语言学教程.apkg
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Omelas 发布时间:2021-07-12 10:25:33

复习笔记如下:后续更新同步习题。

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以下是不经过排版的卡牌内容,非实际展示效果,仅用于了解记忆库中的内容
正面:The definition of language (语言的定义)
背面:Language is a system of arbitrary vocal symbols used for human communication. This definition has revealed five essential factors of language: systematic, arbitrary, vocal, symbolic and most importantly human-specific.
translation:语言是人类以口头交流的任意的符号系统。该定义揭示了语言的五个要素:系统,任意,口头,符号,人类。
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正面:The design features of language (语言的定义特征)【考点:名词解释&填空】
背面:Design features refer to the defining properties of human languages that distinguish it from any animal system of communication.
translation:语言的定义特征是人类语言区别于其他动物交流系统的特点。
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正面:Arbitrariness (任意性)
背面:It is the core feature of language, which refers to the fact that there is no logical or intrinsic connection between a particular sound and the meaning it is associated with. It is not entirely arbitrary at all levels. Some words, such as the  ones created in the imitation of sounds by sounds are motivated in a certain degree.
translation:任意性是语言的核心特征,是指符号的形式或者声音与意义之间没有逻辑或内在联系。虽然语言从本质上讲是任意的,但也不是完全任意的。一些词语,例如一些拟声词的发音与其意义还是有一定联系的。
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正面:Duality (二重性)
背面:Duality refers to the property of having two levels of structures, such that units of the primary level are composed of elements of the secondary level and each of two levels has its own principles  of  organization.  The property of  duality only exists in such a system, namely, with both elements (e.g. sounds, letters) and units (e.g. words).
translation:二重性是指拥有两层结构的这种属性,底层结构是上层结构的组成成分,每层都有自身的组合规则。二重性只存在于这样的系统之中,既有元素又有它们组合成的单位。
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正面:Creativity (创造性)
背面:Creativity means language is  resourceful because of  its duality  and its  recursiveness, which enables  human beings to produce and understand an infinitely large number of sentences in our native language, including the sentences which were never heard before.
translation:创造性指语言的能产性,它能够使人造出和理解无穷的长句,其中很多句子是以前从未听过的。
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正面:Displacement (移位性)
背面:Displacement means that human languages enable their users to symbolize objects, events and concepts which are not present (in time and space) at the moment of communication. Displacement benefits human beings  by giving  them the power to handle generalizations and abstractions.
translation:移位性是指人类语言可以让使用者在交际时用语言符号代表时间上和空间上并不可及的物体、事件和观点。移位性赋予人们的概括和想象力使人类受益无穷。
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正面:Cultural Transmission (文化传递性)
背面:Language is culturally transmitted. It cannot be transmitted through heredity.
translation:语言不是靠遗传,而是通过文化传递的。
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正面:Interchangeability (互换性)
背面:nterchangeability refers to the fact that man can both produce and receive messages, and his roles  as a speaker and a hearer can be exchanged at ease.
translation:互换性是指人可以是信息的发出者,也可以是信息的接受者,即人作为说话者和听话者的角色是可以随意更换的。
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正面:Origin of language(语言的起源)
背面:The Biblical account(圣经的记载) Language was God‘s gift to human beings. 语言是上帝的恩赐。 The bow-wow theory (“汪汪”理论) Language was an imitation of natural sounds, such as the cries of animals, like quack, cuckoo. 语言是模仿自然的声音,例如动物的叫声,如(鸭子)的刮刮声,嘎嘎声,布谷鸟的叫声。 The pooh-pooh theory (“噗噗”理论) Language arose from instinctive emotional cries, expression of pain or joy. 语言来源于人本能的情感声音,表达疼痛或喜悦。 The yo-he-ho theory (“哟-嘿-吼”理论) Language arose from the noises made by a group of people engaged in joint labour or effort–lifting a huge hunted game, moving a rock, etc. 语言起源于原始人共同劳动时发出的有节奏的哼哟声。 The evolution theory (进化理论) Language originated in the process of labour and answered the call of social need. 语言起源于劳动的过程,满足了社会的需求
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正面:Functions of language (语言的功能)【考点:判断所描述的是语言的何种功能&名词解释】
背面:Informative function (信息功能) Interpersonal function (人际功能) Performative function (施为功能) Emotive function (感情功能) Phatic function (寒暄功能) Recreational function (娱乐功能) Metalingual function (元语言功能)
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正面:Informative function (信息功能)
背面:Language is used to tell something, to give information, or to reason things out. The  informative  function  is regarded as the most important function. Declarative sentences serve this function.
translation:语言用来陈述某件事情,提供信息或用作推理。信息功能是语言最重要的功能,一般出现在陈述句中。
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正面:Interpersonal function (人际功能)
背面:The interpersonal function is considered as the most important sociological use of language, by which people establish and maintain their status in a society.
translation:人际功能是语言最重要的社会功能。人们由此建立和维持他们的身份和社会地位。
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正面:Performative function (施为功能)
背面:The performative function of language is primarily used to change the social status of persons, such as in marriage ceremonies, the sentencing of criminals, the blessing of children, the naming of a ship at a launching ceremony, and the cursing of enemies. The kind of language employed in performative verbal acts is usually quite formal  and  even ritualized.
translation:语言的施为功能主要是用来改变人的社会地位,例如在婚礼、判刑,为孩子祈福和在首航仪式上为船命名、诅咒敌人。在这些言语行为中,语言通常是非常正式的,甚至是仪式化的。
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正面:Emotive function (感情功能)
背面:The emotive function of language is one of the most powerful uses of language because it is so crucial in changing  the emotional status of an audience for or against someone or something.
translation:语言的感情功能是语言最有用的功能之一,因为它在改变听者赞成或反对某人、某物的态度上作用非常关键。
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正面:Phatic function (寒暄功能)
背面:This function refers to expressions that help define and maintain interpersonal relations, such as slangs, jokes, jargons, ritualistic exchanges, switches to social and regional dialects.
translation:寒暄功能是指那些有助于确立和维持人际关系的表达,例如俚语、玩笑、行话、礼节性的问候、社会方言或地域方言的转用等。
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